Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Third Edition

P V Guharaj and Sudhir K Gupta

ISBN: 9789386235787 | Year: 2019 | Paperback | Pages: 736 | Language : English

Book Size: 216 X 280 mm | Territorial Rights: World

Price: 1125.00

About the Book

First published in 1982, Forensic Medicine has been a trusted book of reference, not only for students of medicine, but also for law enforcement agencies in India. Since the last edition of this book, the field of medicine, as with any science, has evolved significantly with the advent of technology; the legislation in India too has undergone a great deal of change with several new laws being passed and numerous amendments being made to the existing ones. The third edition of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology has been fortified to make it an up-to-date source of reference for students of medicine. It contains several clinical case studies that have been provided by the author, drawn from his own experiences at AIIMS, New Delhi. Numerous photographs and illustrations have also been included in this edition to help the reader visualise concepts better. The book is intended for undergraduate students of medicine but should also be a useful guide to forensic medicine for postgraduate students, medical practitioners, lawyers, police officers and members of the judiciary. 

Contributors (Author(s), Editor(s), Translator(s), Illustrator(s) etc.)

P V Guharaj, MRCP (Edin), MRCP (Glasg), FRCP (Glasg), 
Formerly, Director of Kozhikode Medical College, Kerala 

Sudhir K Gupta, MBBS (Gold Medal), MD (BHU), DNB, MNAMS, FICS (Chicago)
Professor and Head, Department of Forensic Medicine,
All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi

Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Edition
Preface to the First Edition

Section I – Forensic Medicine
Chapter 1 – Introduction and History 
1. Definitions 
      • Forensic Medicine 
      • Medical Jurisprudence
      • Medical Ethics
      • Medical Etiquette
      • Forensic Pathology 
2.  Evolution of Forensic Medicine and Medical Jurisprudence 

Chapter 2 – Legal Procedures in India and Abroad
1.  Definitions 
      • Indian Penal Code (IPC), 1860
      • Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC), 1973
      • Civil Procedure Code (CPC), 1908 
      • Indian Evidence Act (IEA), 1872 
      • Consumer Protection Act (COPRA), 1986
      • The Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002
      • Offences [S.2(n), CrPC]
      • Punishments
2. Legal Procedures in India
      • Inquest
      • Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)
      • Courts of Law
      • Summons (or Subpoena)
      • Evidence
      • Witnesses
      • Oath and Affirmation
      • Recording of Evidence in a Court  
      • In-Camera Trial [Section 327(2), CrPC]
      • Medical Witness 
      • Trial Procedure in Summon and Warrant Cases

Chapter 3 – The Medical Council of India, Medical Ethics and Negligence
1. Medical Council of India
2. State Medical Councils
      • Functions of the State Medical Council 
3. Medical Ethics
      • Duties of Physicians in General
      • Duties of the Physician to his Patients
      • Duties of the Physician regarding Specialist Consultation    
      • Duties of the Physician towards a Colleague   
      • Duties of the Physician to the Public and to the Paramedical Profession
      • Unethical Acts
      • Professional Secrecy and Privileged Communication   
      • Infamous Conduct
      • Consent    
4. Medical Negligence
      • Bolam Test
      • Types of Medical Negligence
      • Negligence and Infamous Conduct    
      • Proof of Medical Negligence     
      • Medical Misadventure or Medical Mal-occurrence
      • Doctors’ Defence against Negligence Charges
      • Police Investigation in Alleged Medical Negligence
5. Pressures Faced by Doctors in Medicolegal Cases
6. Euthanasia
7. Organ Transplantation
8. Product Liability
9. Consumer Protection Act
      • Time Limit for Filing Complaint
      • Redressal Agencies
10. Medical Indemnity Insurance
11. The Employee’s Compensation Act

Chapter 4 – Personal Identity
1. Corpus delicti
2. Identity of Living Persons  
      • Identity of Criminals  
3. Identity of Dead Bodies
      • Identification of Unidentified Dead Bodies  
      • Identity of Decomposed Dead Bodies or Human Remains 
4. Traits Used for Identification of both the Living and the Dead
      • Race 
      • Sex
      • Age
      • Stature
      • Hair
      • Anthropometry or Bertillon System
      • Dactylography or Gallon System (Fingerprinting)
      • Other Prints
      • Scars
      • Tattoo Marks 
      • Superimposition
      • Reconstruction of the Face from Skull 
      • Deformities and Peculiarities 
      • Occupation Marks
      • Religion and Caste
      • Complexion and Features 
      • Forensic Odontology
5. Traits used to Identify the Living
      • Handwriting (Calligraphy)
      • Clothes and Ornaments
      • Speech and Voice
      • Gait
      • Mental Power, Memory and Educational Status
      • EV method (Electrocardiogram and Vectocardiogram)
      • Amount of Illumination Required for Identification
      • Biometrics
      • DNA Fingerprint

Chapter 5 – Death: Diagnosis and Postmortem Changes
1. Death
      • Somatic Death and its Certification
      • Molecular Death
      • Suspended Animation
      • Gordon’s Classification of Death
      • Brain Death
2. The Transplantation of Human Organs Act
3. Forensic Taphonomy
      • Immediate Changes after Death
      • Early Changes after Death
      • Late Changes after Death
4. Forensic Entomology
      • The Blue Bottle Fly
      • The Common Housefly
      • Lader Beetles
5. Embalming
      • Embalming Fluid
      • Pre-Embalming Procedure
      • Methods of Embalming 
      • Embalming in Cases of AIDS
      • Legal Responsibility
6. Time since Death (Postmortem Interval)
      • Importance of PMI
      • Physical Parameters
      • Stomach Contents, Digestion and Time Since Death
      • Bladder Contents and Time of Death
      • Histological Changes in Skin
      • Melatonin
      • Bone Marrow Cell Changes
      • Nasal Ciliary Motility and Time of Death
      • Time of Death from the Growth of Hair and Nails
      • Postmortem Chemistry and Time of Death
      • Radiocarbon Dating and Time of Death
      • Miscellaneous Indicators of Time of Death
      • Crime Scene Findings
7. Presumption of Survivorship and Death
      • Medicolegal Importance of the Presumption of Death and Survivorship

Chapter 6 – The Medicolegal Autopsy and Related Procedures
1. Medicolegal Postmortem Examination
      • Objectives
      • Precautions
2. Procedure for an Autopsy
      • External Examination
      • Radiological Examination of the Dead Body
      • Internal Examination
      • Other Diagnostic Procedures
      • Collection of Samples
      • Preservation of Samples
      • Obscure Autopsy
      • Negative Autopsy
      • Second Autopsy
      • Digital/Virtual Autopsy
3. Postmortem Report
4. Torture
      • Postmortem in Torture Deaths
      • Guidelines for Videography of a Postmortem 
5. Constitution of Medical Board for Postmortem Examination
      • Death in Police Custody or Police Encounters
      • Death in Judicial Custody
      • Death due to Medical Negligence
6. Artefacts
      • Therapeutic Artefacts
      • Agonal Artefacts
      • Postmortem Artefacts
7. Autopsy Room Hazards
      • Autopsy of an Infected Body
      • Autopsy of Hazard Group 3 Patients
      • Autopsy in HIV/AIDS Cases
      • Autopsy of a Radioactive Dead Body

Chapter 7 – Examination of Mutilated Bodies, Skeletal Human Remains and Exhumation
1. Examination of Mutilated Bodies and Skeletal Human Remains
      • Ascertaining that the Remains are Human
      • Number of Human Beings 
      • Sex of the Individual
      • Age of the Individual
      • Stature of the Individual 
      • Body Features and Accessories
      • Time since Death
      • Method of Mutilation
      • Antemortem vs Postmortem Injuries
      • Cause of Death
2. Skeletal Human Remains 
      • Forensic Examination of Bones 
3. Medicolegal Importance of Mutilated Bodies and Skeletal Remains
4. Exhumation

Chapter 8 – Mass Disasters 
1. Introduction 
2. Natural Disasters 
3. Man-made Disasters 
4. Dignified Management of the Dead
      • Phases of Management
      • Precautions to be Observed 

Chapter 9 – Sudden and Unexpected Death
1. Medicolegal Importance of Sudden Death
2. Causes of Sudden and Unexpected Death
      • Unnatural Causes 
      • Natural Causes
      • Coexistence of Unnatural and Natural Causes
      • Various Causes of Natural Deaths

Chapter 10 – Mechanical and Firearm Injuries
1. Introduction
2. Mechanical Injuries
      • Abrasion
      • Contusion or Bruise    
      • Lacerations
      • Incised Wounds
      • Stab Wounds or Punctured Wounds
3. Firearm Missile Wounds
      • Types of Firearms
      • Firearm Missile Injuries
      • Medical Examination of Persons Accused of Firing
4. Examination of the Firearm Crime Scene
      • Protocols of Investigation of a Scene of Death
5. Role of the Autopsy Surgeon

Chapter 11 – Regional Injuries 
1. Head 
      • Injuries to the Scalp
      • Injuries to the Skull
      • Injuries to the Brain 
      • Intracranial Bleeding 
2. Face 
      • Facial Bones 
      • Eyes
      • Nose 
      • Ears 
      • Lips 
      • Teeth
      • Teeth and Alveoli 
3. Neck 
4. Spine and Spinal Cord 
      • Fractures in the Vertebral Column
      • Injuries to the Spinal Cord 
5. Chest
      • Non-penetrating Chest Injury
      • Penetrating Chest Injury
      • Abrasions and Contusions 
      • Ribs
      • Sternum 
      • Lungs 
      • Heart 
      • Blood Vessels 
      • Oesophagus
      • Diaphragm 
6. Abdomen 
      • Stomach 
      • Intestines 
      • Pancreas 
      • Liver 
      • Spleen 
      • Kidney
      • Adrenals
      • Urinary Bladder 
      • Urethra 
      • Rectum
7. External Genitalia 
      • Male External Genitalia
      • Female External Genitalia
8. Muscles 
9. Bones and Joints
      • Types of Fractures
      • Age of Fracture 
      • Medicolegal Importance of Fractures

Chapter 12 – Road Traffic, Railway and Aircraft Accidents
1. Road Accidents 
      • Death from Vehicular Accidents
      • Nature of Injury 
      • Force of Impact
      • Time Interval between the Accident and Death 
      • Pre-existing Disease or Disability
      • Vehicle Responsible for the Accident 
      • Accident, Homicide or Suicide 
      • Investigation of Road Traffic Accidents 
2. Railway Accidents 
      • Railway Spine 
3. Aircraft Accidents 
      • Crash Accidents 
      • Flight Accidents

Chapter 13 – Medicolegal Aspects of Wounds 
1. Introduction
2. Duties of  a Doctor in Medicolegal Cases 
3. Important IPC Sections Pertaining to Injuries
      • Injury (Section 44, IPC)
      • Assault (Section 351, IPC)
      • Hurt (Section 319, IPC) 
      • Grievous Hurt (Section 320, IPC)
      • Culpable Homicide (Section 299, IPC) 
      • Murder (Section 300, IPC)
      • Dowry Death (Section 304B, IPC) 
      • Abetment of Suicide (Section 306, IPC)
      • Cruelty towards Women (Section 498A, IPC) 
      • Voluntary Hurt by Dangerous Weapons or Means (Section 324, IPC) 
      • Nature of Injuries Produced by Weapons (Sections 323–326, IPC)
4. Delhi Victim Compensation Act
5. Assessment of the Age of Injuries 
      • Naked Eye Examination 
      • Microscopic Forensic Estimation 
      • Histochemical Estimation 
      • Wound Biochemistry
      • Connective Tissue Histochemistry
      • Time of Loss of Tooth
6. Fatal Injury Inside the Body Without External Findings 
7. Differentiating between Antemortem and Postmortem Injuries 
8. Differentiating between Suicidal and Homicidal Injuries 
      • Medicolegal Aspects of Self-inflicted Injuries 
9. Ascertaining the Cause of Death 
      • Primary or Immediate Cause of Death
      • Secondary or Remote Cause of Death 
10. Medicolegal Report of Injury 

Chapter 14 – Thermal, Electrical and Radiation Injuries 

1. Thermal Injuries 
      • Injuries Caused by Cold
      • Injuries Caused by Heat 
2. Burns 
      • Types of Burns 
      • Classification of Burns 
      • Estimation of Body Surface Area of a Burn 
      • Factors Affecting Damage Caused by Burns 
      • Cause of Death 
      • Postmortem Appearance 
      • Age of Burns 
      • Medicolegal Considerations in Death due to Burns 
      • Scalds
3. Electricity 
      • Electric Shock
      • Lightning 
4. Nuclear (Radiation) Injury
      • Particulate Radiation 
      • Electromagnetic Radiation 
      • Pathology 
      • Effects of Radiation 
      • Atom Bomb Explosion
      • Prevention of Radiation Hazards 
      • Diagnosis of Radiation Injury
      • Medicolegal Importance of Radiation Injuries 
5. Injury Caused by Sound 

Chapter 15 – Asphyxial Deaths
1. Introduction
2. Physiology of Asphyxia
3. Types of Asphyxia 
      • Mechanical Asphyxia
      • Pathological Asphyxia
      • Chemical Asphyxia
      • Environmental Asphyxia
      • Positional Asphyxia
4. Pathology of Asphyxia
      • Pathological Changes in Death due to Asphyxia
5. Classification of Mechanical Asphyxia
      • Hanging 
      • Strangulation 
      • Suffocation 
      • Drowning 

Chapter 16 – Decompression and Altitude Sickness
1. Decompression Sickness 
      • Mechanism 
      • Signs and Symptoms 
      • Treatment 
      • Investigation and Examination of Death due to Decompression Sickness
2. Altitude Sickness 
      • Acute Mountain Sickness 

Chapter 17 – Sexual Offences and Paraphilias 
1. Introduction 
2. Rape 
      • Definition 
      • Punishment for Rape
      • Consent in Relation to Rape
      • Legal Provisions Related to Rape 
      • Duties of a Doctor towards an Alleged Victim of Rape
      • Examination of the Victim 
      • Rape Trauma Syndrome 
      • Causes of Death in Cases of Rape 
      • False Charges of Rape 
      • Examination of the Accused 
      • Medicolegal Aspects of Semen 
3. Incest 
4. Sexual Offences on Children 
5. Unnatural Sex Offences (Section 377)
      • Sodomy 
      • Buccal Coitus 
      • Lesbianism 
      • Bestiality
6. Paraphilia
      • Masturbation 
      • Sadism 
      • Masochism 
      • Fetishism 
      • Transvestitism 
      • Paedophilia 
      • Exhibitionism 
      • Voyeurism 
      • Satyriasis
      • Indecent Assault
      • Adultery

Chapter 18 – Virginity, Pregnancy, Delivery and Abortion
1. Virginity 
      • Signs of Virginity 
      • Medicolegal Importance of Virginity 
      • Defloration 
2. Pregnancy 
      • Diagnosis of Pregnancy in the Living
      • Signs of Pregnancy in the Dead
      • Medicolegal Importance of Pregnancy
3. Delivery 
      • Signs of Recent Delivery
      • Signs of Remote Delivery
      • Medicolegal Importance of Delivery
4. Abortion 
      • Spontaneous Abortion 
      • Induced/Medical Abortion
      • Criminal Abortion
      • Complications Arising from Abortions
      • Medicolegal Investigation of a Suspected Case of Abortion 
      • Punishment for Criminal Abortion
5. The Pre-conception and Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Act
      • Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques
6. Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 
      • Duties of Law Enforcement Agencies

Chapter 19 – Impotence, Sterility and Artificial Insemination 
1. Impotence 
      • Emasculation 
      • Castration 
      • Mechanism of Penile Erection 
      • Potency Disorders in Men
      • Causes of Impotence in Men
2. Examination for Impotency 
      • Systemic 
      • Local 
      • Investigations 
      • Medicolegal Importance of Impotence 
      • Causes of Impotence in Women 
3. Sterility 
      • Causes of Sterility in Men 
      • Causes of Sterility in Women 
      • Medicolegal Importance of Sterility
4. Assisted Reproductive Technologies 
      • Artificial Insemination 
      • Artificial Insemination and Medical Ethics
      • Medicolegal Importance of Artificial Insemination 
      • In-vitro Fertilisation 
      • Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer 
      • Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer
      • Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection 
      • Hormone Replacement Therapy
      • Assisted Reproductive Technology Rules 
5. Surrogacy
      • The Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill 
      • Medicolegal Importance of Surrogacy 
6. Sexual Sterilisation 
      • Therapeutic Sterilisation
      • Eugenic Sterilisation
      • Contraceptive Sterilisation
      • Medicolegal Importance of Sterilisation
7. Relative Importance of Surgical Methods of Contraception in the National Family Planning Programme 
      • Contraceptive Practices in India 
      • Salient Features of the National Family Welfare Programme

Chapter 20 – Infanticide, Battered Baby and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
1. Introduction 
2. Viability of a Child
3. Live or Stillbirth 
      • Signs of Intrauterine Death
      • Causes of Stillbirth 
      • Signs of Live Birth 
4. Period of Survival
      • Meconium 
      • Nucleated Red Blood Corpuscles 
      • Colour of Kidneys 
      • Foetal Circulation 
5. Cause of Death 
      • Natural Causes 
      • Accidental Birth Injuries 
      • Death due to Criminal Causes 
6. Time of Infant’s Death 
7. Identity of the Mother 
      • Abandoning of Infants (Section 317, IPC) 
      • Concealment of Birth (Section 318, IPC)
8. Battered Baby Syndrome/Caffey Syndrome
      • Internal Findings 
      • Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy
9. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome/ Cot Death 
      • Features 
      • Causes of SIDS
      • Postmortem Findings

Chapter 21 – Forensic Psychiatry
1. Introduction 
      • In Criminal Cases 
      • In Civil Cases 
2. Definitions 
      • Insanity (Unsoundness of Mind)
      • Non compos mentis
      • Feigned Insanity 
      • Malingering or Shamming 
      • Lucid Interval 
      • Hallucinations 
      • Illusions 
      • Oneiroid State 
      • Twilight State
      • Neurosis 
      • Psychosis 
3. Classification of Mental Disorders 
4. Etiology of Mental Disorders
      • Hereditary Factors 
      • Constitutional Factors
      • Physical Factors 
      • Psychological Factors 
      • Age 
      • Sex
      • Marriage
5. Diagnosis of Mental Disorders 
      • History Taking 
      • Physical Examination 
6. The Mental Healthcare Act 
      • The Revised Mental Healthcare Act 
7. Civil Responsibilities of the Mentally Ill 
      • Management of Property 
      • Testamentary Capacity 
      • Contract 
      • Marriage 
      • Consent 
      • Competency as a Witness 
      • Adoption 
8. Criminal Responsibilities of the Mentally Ill 
      • Insanity Defence: Not Guilty 
      • Insanity Defence: Guilty Plea
      • Doctrine of Diminished Responsibility
      • Improper Legal Defence due to Mental Disease 
      • Mens rea
      • Actus reus
      • Somnambulism 
      • Hypnotism 
      • Alcoholic Intoxication 
      • Drugs 
      • Premenstrual and Menstrual Stress/Dsyphoric Syndrome 
9. Rules Regarding Insanity in Other Countries 
      • M’Naghten Rule 
      • Durham’s Rule 
      • American Law Institute Test 
      • Currens’ Rule 

Chapter 22 – Blood, Semen and Other Biological Materials 
1. Bloodstains 
      • Collection and Preservation of Bloodstains 
      • Examination of Blood or Bloodstains 
      • Hazards of Blood Transfusion 
2. Semen and Seminal Stains 
      • Collection, Preservation and Dispatch 
      • Examination of Seminal Stains 
      • Medicolegal Importance of Seminal Identification 
3. Other Biological Materials 
      • Saliva
      • Vaginal Secretions 
      • Urine 
      • Faeces 
      • Other Body Fluids 
4. DNA Fingerprinting/Typing/Profiling
      • Principles of DNA Typing 
      • Biological Samples for DNA Profiling 
      • Methods of DNA Typing 
      • Advantages of DNA Typing
      • Disadvantages of DNA Typing
      • Medicolegal Importance of DNA Typing
      • DNA Databases 
      • The DNA-Based Technology Bill
5. Polygraph 
6. Brain Mapping 
7. Narcoanalysis 


Chapter 23 – Death from Starvation

1. Starvation 
      • Causes of Starvation 
      • Types of Starvation
      • Fatal Period
      • Postmortem Appearance in Cases of Starvation 
      • Medicolegal Aspects of Starvation
2. Force-Feeding 
      • Gavage
      • Medicolegal Aspects of Force-Feeding 

Chapter 24  Death and Complications in the Operation Theatre 
1. Causes of Death in the Operation Theatre 
      • Death Directly due to Surgical Operations 
      • Death due to Anaesthesia 
      • Anaesthesia as a Contributory Factor 
2. Types of Anaesthesia and Related Complications 
      • Local Anaesthesia
      • Spinal Anaesthesia
      • General Anaesthesia
3. Medicolegal Aspects 
      • Investigation and Examination of Anaesthetic Death

Chapter 25 – Medicolegal Aspects of AIDS 
1. HIV Testing Approaches 
      • Compulsory Testing
      • Mandatory Testing
      • Voluntary Testing
      • Unlinked Anonymous Testing
2. Legal and Ethical Issues in HIV Testing 
      • Rights of HIV Positive Patients 
      • Confidentiality 
      • Legal Importance 
      • Duty of the Doctor 
      
Section II – Toxicology
Chapter 26 – General Toxicology
1. History of Toxicology 
2. Poisoning 
      • Definitions 
      • Toxicokinetics and Toxicodynamics 
      • Laws Relating to Poisons
      • Classification of Poisons 
      • Circumstances of Poisoning 
      • Action of Poisons 
      • Factors Influencing the Intensity of Poisoning 
3. Duties of a Medical Practitioner in a Case of Suspected Poisoning 
      • Sample Preservation for Chemical Analysis
4. Sample Collection and Preservation 
      • Sample Collection and Preservation in the Living 
      • Commonly used Preservatives 
      • Labelling 
      • Packing and Sealing 
      • Fowarding the Samples 
      • Additional Materials for Chemical Examination 
      • Negative Results for Poison in the Viscera 
      • Hard to Detect Poisons 
5. Treatment of Acute Poisoning 
      • Immediate Resuscitative Measures 
      • Prevention of Absorption of the Poison 
      • Elimination of Absorbed Poison 
      • Administering Antidotes 
      • General and Symptomatic Measures 
6. Toxidromes 
7. Legal Provisions Pertaining to Poisoning 
      • Section 176 of the IPC
      • Section 201 of the IPC
      • Section 202 of the IPC
      • Section 284 of the IPC
8. Analytical Toxicology 
      • Practical Aspects 

Chapter 27 – Corrosive Poisons 
1. Types of Corrosives
2. General Features of Corrosive Poisoning 
      • Cause of Death 
3. Poisoning with Acids 
      • Poisoning with Mineral Acids 
      • Poisoning with Organic Acids 
4. Poisoning with Alkalis 
      • Strong Alkalis
      • Chlorinated Alkalis
5. Poisoning with Metallic Salts 
6. Poisoning with Halogens 
      • Chlorine 
      • Bromine 
      • Iodine 
      • Fluorine 
7. Poisoning with Corrosive Gases 
      • Ammonia 
      • Formaldehyde 
      • Sulphur Dioxide 
8. Treatment of Corrosive Poisoning 
      • Stomach Wash 
      • Antidotes 
      • Symptomatic Measures 

Chapter 28 – Heavy Metal Poisoning 
1. Arsenic 
2. Antimony 
3. Copper 
4. Lead 
5. Mercury 
6. Iron 
7. Thallium 
8. Manganese 
9. Barium 
10. Cadmium 
11. Metal Fume Fever 

Chapter 29 – Agricultural Poisons
1. Classification of Agricultural Poisons 
2. Insecticides of Vegetable Origin 
      • Nicotine 
      • Pyrethrins 
      • Rotenone 
3. Inorganic Chemical Insecticides
4. Synthetic Organic Chemical Insecticides 
      • Chlorinated Hydrocarbons 
      • Phosphate Esters
      • Carbamates 

Chapter 30 – Poisonous Plants
1. Introduction 
      • Toxalbumin or Phytotoxin 
2. Toxicologically Significant Poisonous Plants 
      • Abrus precatorius 
      • Aconitum 
      • Argemone mexicana
      • Calotropis
      • Cannabis sativa 
      • Capsicum annum 
      • Cerbera odollam
      • Cinchona 
      • Claviceps purpurea
      • Croton tiglium
      • Curare
      • Digitalis purpurea
      • Datura
      • Erythroxylum coca
      • Conicum musculatum
      • Lathyrus sativus 
      • Mushrooms 
      • Nerium indicum 
      • Nicotiana tabacum 
      • Papaver somniferum 
      • Plumbago
      • Ricinus communis
      • Semeccarpus anacardium
      • Strychnos nux-vomica 
      • Cerbera thevetica

Chapter 31 – Poisonous Snakes and Arthropods
1. Poisonous Snakes 
      • General Features of Snakes 
      • Classification of Snakes 
      • Characteristics of Bite Marks of Poisonous Snakes 
      • Constituents and Action of Snake Venom 
      • Symptomatology of Snake Venom Poisoning (Ophitoxaemia)
      • Factors Affecting the Symptoms of Snake Bites 
      • Diagnosis of Poisoning 
      • Management of Snake Bites 
      • Postmortem Appearance 
      • Medicolegal Aspects of Snake Bites 
2. Poisonous Arthropods 
      • Spiders 
      • Scorpions 
      • Centipedes 
      • Poisonous Insects 
3. Venomous Fish 
      • Jellyfish 
4. Venomous Lizards 

Chapter 32 – Drugs of Intoxication and Dependence
1. Drug Intoxication 
      • Drug Habituation 
      • Drug Addiction 
      • Drug Abuse 
2. Drug Dependence 
      • Tolerance 
      • Psychological Dependence or Habituation 
      • Physical Dependence 
      • Etiology of Drug Dependence 
3. Drugs of Dependence 
      • Opiates and Synthetic Analogues of Morphine 
      • Depressants of the Central Nervous System 
      • Alcohol
      • Stimulants of the Central Nervous System 
      • Cocaine 
      • Psychedelics 
      • Street Drugs 
      • Volatile Hydrocarbons and Anaesthetics 
      • Pharmaceutical Toxicology 
      • Illicit use of Drugs in Sports 

Chapter 33 – Irrespirable Gases
1. Simple Asphyxiants 
2. Chemical Asphyxiants 
3. Carbon Dioxide 
4. Carbon Monoxide 
5. Cyanides 
6. Formaldehyde 
7. Halogens 
8. Hydrogen Sulphide 
9. Sulphur Dioxide 
10. Ammonia
11. War Gases 
      • Lachrymators or Tear Gases 
      • Asphyxiants or Lung Irritants 
      • Sternutators or Nasal Irritants 
      • Nerve Gases 
      • Paralysants 
      • Miscellaneous
12. Occupational Toxicology 
13. Toxic Pollution and Its Medicolegal Aspects 

Chapter 34 – Food Poisoning 
1. Poisoning of Vegetable Origin 
      • Toxic Honey 
      • Lolium  temulentum
      • Paspalum scrobiculatum
      • Groundnuts
      • Potato 
2. Poisoning of Animal Origin 
      • Ciguatera Fish Poisoning
      • Tetrodotoxin Poisoning 
      • Histidine Poisoning 
      • Shellfish Poisoning
3. Poisoning due to Biological Contaminants 
      • Types of Bacterial Foodborne Illnesses
      •  Mycotoxicosis
4. Chemical Poisoning
5. Stale Food 
      • Signs and Symptoms of Poisoning
6. Food Allergy 
7. Medicolegal Aspects of Food Poisoning

Appendices

Index

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