This book provides step-by-step instructions how to undertake and execute a research project and how to use statistics and statistical tools to analyse and interpret the findings of the project. With complete coverage of the Nursing syllabus for this subject, this book includes real-life examples tailored to the Indian context. Simple language, tables, graphs and examples help students grasp the main concepts and principles of research and statistics. The book also provides self-evaluation questions to enable students to check their understanding of the subject. Distribution and probability tables are given for easy reference. Previous years’ questions papers enhance this book’s exam-oriented approach.

*Online resources such as lecture slides are available at *www.universitiespress.com

**Anurag Bhai Patidar** is Lecturer at Bhopal Nursing College, Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre (Under Indian Council of Medical Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India).

*Preface *

*Acknowledgements *

**SECTION A: NURSING RESEARCH**

**Chapter 1: Research and the Research Process **

Introduction to Nursing Research

Need for Nursing Research

Definition of Research and Nursing Research

Methods of Acquiring Knowledge: Problem-solving and the Scientific Method

Characteristics of Good Research

Evolution of Nursing Research in the West—Important Dates

Evolution of Nursing Research in India—Important Dates

Concept of Evidence-based Nursing Practice

Ethics in Nursing Research

Research Process: Quantitative Research

Research Process: Qualitative Research

**Chapter 2: Research Problem/Question **

Definition of Terms

Introduction to Research Problems

Identification of the Research Problem

Sources of Research Problems

Characteristics of a Good Problem Statement

Evaluation of the Research Problem

Research Question

Research Objectives

Research Variables

Assumptions

Limitations and Delimitations

Hypothesis

Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis

Types of Hypotheses

Hypothesis Testing

Errors in Hypothesis Testing

**Chapter 3: Review of Literature **

Introduction to Review of Literature

Definition of Literature Review

Purpose of Literature Review

Sources of Literature Review

Electronic Sources

Printed Sources

Reviewing Literature

Review Format

**Chapter 4: Research Approaches and Designs **

Introduction to Research Approach/Design

Definitions of Research Design

Factors Influencing Selection of Design

Research Approaches

Quantitative Research

Qualitative Research

Mixed Methods Approach/Pragmatic Approach

Participatory Approach/Action Research

Research Designs

Quantitative Research Designs

Qualitative Research Designs

Other Research Designs

**Chapter 5: Theoretical/Conceptual Framework **

Introduction to Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

Definition of Terms

Characteristics of Theories

Significance of Theory

Common Concepts in Nursing Theory

Theory, Research and Practice Relationship

Classification of Theories

Conceptual Model/Framework/Schemes

Selecting the Appropriate Conceptual Framework

Criteria for Evaluating Conceptual Models/Frameworks

Systems Theory as a Framework

Criticisms of Nursing Theories

**Chapter 6: Sampling Techniques **

Need for a Sample

Characteristics of a Good Sample

Definition of Key Terms

Factors Influencing the Sampling Process

Process of Sampling

Types of Sampling Techniques

Probability Sampling Techniques

Non-probability Sampling Techniques

Sampling Errors

**Chapter 7: Data Collection Tools and Techniques **

Introduction to Data Collection

Developing the Data Collection Plan

Questionnaires

Interviews

Observations

Vignettes

Projective Techniques

Q Sorts

Bio-physiological Methods

Pilot Study

Data Collection Procedure

**Chapter 8: Analysis of Data **

Introduction to Data Analysis

Classification of Data

Organisation of Data

Tabulation of Data

Graphical Presentation of Data

Analysis and Interpretation of Data

**Chapter 9: Communication and Utilisation of Research **

Introduction to Communication of Findings

How to Communicate Research Findings?

Disseminating Research Results at Conferences

Presenting a research poster

Publishing a Journal Article

Research Utilisation

Barriers to Research Utilisation

Facilitators of Research Utilisation

Innovation Diffusion Model

**Chapter 10: Critiquing Research Articles/Reports **

Introduction to Critiquing Research Articles

Definition of terms

Steps in Quantitative Research Critiquing

Steps in Qualitative Research Critiquing

**Chapter 11: Research Proposals **

Introduction to Research Proposals

Types of Proposals

Writing a Research Proposal

Budget Plan

Action Plan

Final Proof Reading and Editing

Common Reasons for Proposal Rejection

**SECTION B: STATISTICS**

**Chapter 12: Introduction to Statistics **

Introduction

Basic Statistical Terminology

Types of Statistical Methods

Application and Scope of Statistics in Health

Vital Health Statistics

Types and Levels of Data and their Measurement

**Chapter 13: Measures of Central Tendency **

Introduction to Measures of Central Tendency

Mean (Arithmetic)

Median

Mode

Selecting the Appropriate Measure of Central Tendency

Position of Measures of Central Tendency

**Chapter 14: Measures of Variability **

Introduction to Measures of Variability

Range

Interquartile Range

Variance

Standard Deviation

Choosing the Appropriate Measure of Variability

**Chapter 15: Measures of Relationship **

Correlation: Meaning and Need

Scatter Diagram Method

Types of Correlation

Correlation Statistics

Simple Linear Regression

**Chapter 16: Parametric and Non-parametric Tests **

Introduction to Parametric and Non-parametric Tests

Parametric Tests

t-Test

z-Test

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

ANCOVA

Non-Parametric Tests

Chi-square Test

Sign Test

Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test

Mood’s Median Test

McNemar’s Test

Mann–Whitney U Test

Fisher’s Exact Test

Kruskal–Wallis Test

**Chapter 17: Use of Computers for Data Analysis **

Introduction to Computers

Use of Computers in Statistics

Statistical Packages for Quantitative Research

SPSS

STATA

Microsoft Office Excel

Statistical Packages for Qualitative Research

Advantages of Statistical Packages

Disadvantages of Statistical Packages

*Annexures *

*Model Question Papers *

*Index *